Thursday, July 23, 2015

Ponca City, Oklahoma

 

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Ponca City, Oklahoma
City
Veteran's Day Parade down Grand Avenue in front of the Ponca City Civic Center and Town Hall
Veteran's Day Parade down Grand Avenue in front of the Ponca City Civic Center and Town Hall
Location of Ponca City, Oklahoma
Location of Ponca City, Oklahoma
Coordinates: 36°42′45″N 97°4′21″WCoordinates: 36°42′45″N 97°4′21″W
Country United States
State Oklahoma
Counties Kay, Osage
Founded 1893[1]
Incorporated 1899[1]
Government
 • Type Council - Manager
 • Mayor Homer Nicholson
 • Vice-Mayor Diane Anderson
Area
 • Total 19.3 sq mi (50.0 km2)
 • Land 18.1 sq mi (46.9 km2)
 • Water 1.2 sq mi (3.1 km2)
Elevation 1,010 ft (308 m)
Population (2010)
 • Total 25,389
 • Density 1,382/sq mi (533.5/km2)
Time zone Central (CST) (UTC-6)
 • Summer (DST) CDT (UTC-5)
ZIP codes 74601-74604
Area code(s) 580
FIPS code 40-59850[2]
GNIS feature ID 1096815[3]
Website www.poncacityok.gov
Ponca City (Pawnee: Riihitawiruʾ, Riíhitawiru, Riihitáwiru [4]) is a small city in Kay and is partly in Osage counties in the U.S. state of Oklahoma, which was named after the Ponca Tribe. Located in north central Oklahoma, it lies approximately 18 miles (29 km) south of the Kansas border, and approximately 15 miles (24 km) east of Interstate 35. Ponca City had a population of 25,387 at the time of the 2010 census, making it the largest city in Kay County. The city is near the Arkansas River, the Salt Fork of the Arkansas River, Kaw Lake, and Lake Ponca, which all provide numerous recreational opportunities.
Ponca City lies on approximately 18.1 square miles (46.9 km2) of land, and also has approximately 1.2 sq mi (3.1 km2) of water, for a total area of 19.3 square miles (50.0 km2). The city is served by the Ponca City Regional Airport (PNC), and is accessible by US-60, US-177, OK-11, and I-35.

 

    History

    Ponca City was founded after the United States opened the Cherokee Outlet for European-American settlement in the Cherokee Strip land run, the largest land run in United States history.
    Ponca City was created in 1893 as New Ponca after the United States opened the Cherokee Outlet for European-American settlement during the Cherokee Strip land run, the largest land run in United States history.[1] The site for Ponca City was selected for its proximity to the Arkansas River and the presence of a fresh water spring near the river. The city was laid out by Burton Barnes, who drew up the first survey of the city and sold certificates for the lots he had surveyed. After the drawing for lots in the city was completed, Barnes was elected the city's first mayor.[5]
    Another city, Cross, vied with Ponca City to become the leading city in the area. After the Atchison, Topeka and Santa Fe Railway had opened a station in Cross, people thought it would not open another in Ponca City because of the two cities' proximity.[5] New Ponca boosters eventually secured a station after offering the Santa Fe station agent two town lots and the free relocation of his house from Cross.[6] Ponca City reportedly obtained its first boxcar station by some Ponca City supporters going to Cross and returning with the town's station pulled behind them.[5] Cross eventually became defunct. In 1913 New Ponca changed its name to Ponca City.[6]

    Demographics

    Historical population
    Census Pop.
    1900 2,528
    1910 2,521
    −0.3%
    1920 7,051
    179.7%
    1930 16,136
    128.8%
    1940 16,794
    4.1%
    1950 20,180
    20.2%
    1960 24,411
    21.0%
    1970 25,940
    6.3%
    1980 26,238
    1.1%
    1990 26,359
    0.5%
    2000 25,919
    −1.7%
    2010 25,387
    −2.1%
    Est. 2014 24,766 [7] −2.4%
    Sources:[8][9][10][11][2][12]
    As of the census[2] of 2010, there were 25,387 people, 10,440 households and 7,019 families residing in the city. The population density was 1,431.0/sq mi (552.5/km2). There were 11,950 housing units at an average density of 655.4/sq mi (253.1/km2). The racial makeup of the city was 84.18% White, 2.99% African American, 6.27% Native American, 0.70% Asian, 0.03% Pacific Islander, 2.08% from other races, and 3.75% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 4.43% of the population.
    There were 10,440 households of which 25.4% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 51.3% were married couples living together, 11.1% had a female householder with no husband present, and 34.0% were non-families. 30.0% of all households were made up of individuals and 13.7% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.38 and the average family size was 2.95.
    26.2% of the population were under the age of 18, 8.5% from 18 to 24, 25.5% from 25 to 44, 22.1% from 45 to 64, and 17.7% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 38 years. For every 100 females there were 90.7 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 85.8 males.
    The median income for a household in the city was $39,023, and the median income for a family was $38,839. Males had a median income of $32,283 versus $20,098 for females. The per capita income for the city was $22,566. About 12.7% of families and 17.7% of the population were below the poverty line, including 23.6% of those under age 18 and 9.3% of those age 65 or over.

    Climate

    Ponca city tornado.jpg
    The Ponca City region of Oklahoma is part of tornado alley. Tornadoes are most common in April, May and June. The photo shows a historic photo of a classic wide tornado funnel taken near Ponca City between 1890 and 1920. Ponca City faces very hot and humid summers known to average over 100 F as well as severe storms. During the winters, Ponca City consists of mostly mild to strong winters with snowstorms and ice.
    [hide]Climate data for Ponca City Regional Airport (KPNC)
    Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
    Average high °F (°C) 43.7
    (6.5)
    50.8
    (10.4)
    60.7
    (15.9)
    70.8
    (21.6)
    79.0
    (26.1)
    88.1
    (31.2)
    94.1
    (34.5)
    93.2
    (34)
    83.9
    (28.8)
    72.7
    (22.6)
    57.7
    (14.3)
    46.9
    (8.3)
    70.1
    (21.2)
    Daily mean °F (°C) 33.8
    (1)
    39.7
    (4.3)
    49.2
    (9.6)
    58.9
    (14.9)
    68.2
    (20.1)
    77.5
    (25.3)
    82.9
    (28.3)
    81.9
    (27.7)
    73.0
    (22.8)
    61.3
    (16.3)
    47.4
    (8.6)
    37.1
    (2.8)
    59.24
    (15.14)
    Average low °F (°C) 23.8
    (−4.6)
    28.6
    (−1.9)
    37.6
    (3.1)
    47.0
    (8.3)
    57.3
    (14.1)
    66.8
    (19.3)
    71.6
    (22)
    70.5
    (21.4)
    62.0
    (16.7)
    49.8
    (9.9)
    37.1
    (2.8)
    27.3
    (−2.6)
    48.3
    (9.1)
    Average precipitation inches (mm) 1.18
    (30)
    1.41
    (35.8)
    2.94
    (74.7)
    3.51
    (89.2)
    4.92
    (125)
    4.50
    (114.3)
    3.43
    (87.1)
    3.36
    (85.3)
    3.67
    (93.2)
    3.23
    (82)
    2.59
    (65.8)
    1.67
    (42.4)
    36.41
    (924.8)
    Source: National Weather Service [13]

    Influence of the petroleum industry

    The statue of oilman E. W. Marland, founder of Marland Oil (later Conoco), who later was elected as a U.S. Congressman and Oklahoma Governor.
    Ponca City's history and economy has been shaped chiefly by the ebb and flow of the petroleum industry. E. W. Marland, a Pennsylvania oil man, came to Oklahoma and founded the Marland Oil Company, which once controlled approximately 10 percent of the world's oil reserves.[14] He founded the 101 Ranch Oil Company, located on the Miller Brothers 101 Ranch, and drilled his first successful oil well on land which he leased in 1911 from the Ponca Tribe of American Indians.[15] He was elected in 1932 as a U.S. congressman and in 1934 as governor of Oklahoma.
    Marland's exploitation of oil reserves generated growth and wealth that were previously unimaginable on the Oklahoma prairie, and his company virtually built the city from the ground up.[citation needed] Marland and his associates built mansions to display their new wealth, including the Grand Home and the E.W. Marland Estate (once called the Palace on the Prairie.) Because of this period of wealth and affluence, Ponca City has a high concentration of buildings that exemplify the popular Spanish Colonial Revival architecture of the period, as well as art deco-influenced buildings and homes.
    The "Roaring 20s" came to an end for Ponca City shortly before the Great Depression. After a successful takeover bid by J.P. Morgan, Jr., son of financier J.P. Morgan, Marland Oil Co. merged with Continental Oil Co. (Conoco) in the late 1920s.[15] It was known as Conoco for more than 70 years. The company maintained its headquarters in Ponca City until 1949 and continued to grow into a global corporation.
    During the oil boom years of the 1980s, Conoco was owned by the DuPont Corp., which took control of the company in 1981.[15] After nearly two decades of ownership and an oil bust that crippled Oklahoma's economy in the late 1980s, DuPont sold off its Conoco assets in 1998.[15] In 2002, Conoco had merged with Phillips Petroleum (another major petroleum player with roots in northern Oklahoma) to become ConocoPhillips.[15] ConocoPhillips was then the sixth-largest publicly traded oil company in the world, and the third largest in the United States.[15] It maintains a significant presence in its historic home state.
    Since the company has reduced its workforce and facilities in the city, the population has declined steadily since the early 1990s. In February 2009, ConocoPhillips announced that all of its remaining non-refinery operations in Ponca City (representing 750 jobs) would be moved out of the city.[16] The city's recent efforts to grow its economy beyond the petroleum industry have attracted a number of technology, manufacturing and service jobs.[citation needed]
    In 2005, ConocoPhillips announced plans to build a $5 million museum across from its Ponca City refinery. Opened to the public in May 2007, the Conoco Museum features artifacts, photographs and other historical items related to the petroleum industry and its culture in northern Oklahoma. A sister museum, Phillips Petroleum Company Museum, will be opened in Bartlesville, Oklahoma. Funded by a private foundation, the Conoco Museum charges no admission fee.
    In 2012 ConocoPhillips split into two separate companies, with the upstream portion retaining the ConocoPhillips name and the refining and transportation portions taking the name Phillips66.
    Based in Houston, Texas, Phillips66 continues to operate a 200 thousand barrel per day refinery[citation needed] in Ponca City.

    Native American history

    The statue of Standing Bear honors the Ponca chief who successfully argued in U.S. District Court in a landmark civil rights case in 1879 that Native Americans are "persons within the meaning of the law" and have the rights of citizenship.
    Native American young people hold flags of their tribes at the dedication of the Standing Bear Museum.
    Until recently, European Americans' accounts of their settlement and the growth of the oil industry in Ponca City have often overshadowed both the long ancient history of indigenous peoples in the area, as well as those tribes who were resettled to Oklahoma in the nineteenth century under Indian Removal. The long history of the area's Native American population and its influences on the culture and history of the city and its environs.
    Ponca City is named after the Ponca Tribe, part of which was relocated from Nebraska to northern Oklahoma from 1877 to 1880. Like all of the forced American Indian removals of the 19th century, the Poncas' trek was arduous. Followed by the government's failure to provide adequate supplies, as well as malaria at their destination, nearly one-third of the Ponca died from illness and exposure. "Out of 700 Ponca who left the Nebraska reservation, 158 died in Oklahoma within two years." [17]
    The Ponca protested their conditions. Standing Bear's oldest son died in 1879. The chief had promised to bury him in his homeland, and about 60 Ponca accompanied him back to Nebraska. The US Army was ordered to arrest them for having left the reservation, and they were confined to Fort Omaha. Most of the tribal members who left eventually returned to the reservation in Oklahoma.[18] With the aid of prominent attorneys working pro bono, Standing Bear filed a writ of habeas corpus challenging his arrest. The case of Standing Bear v. Crook (1879) was a landmark decision in the US District Court, where the judge ruled that Indians had the same legal rights as other United States citizens.
    A statue was erected in his honor at the intersection of Highway 60 and Standing Bear Parkway in Ponca City. In the late twentieth century, the city developed a park and museum, named in his honor.
    The Ponca Nation, which has kept its headquarters south of Ponca City since 1879, played a major part in the development of the Marland Oil Co. and the city. Chief White Eagle leased resource-containing portions of the tribe's allotted land to E.W. Marland in 1911 for oil exploration and development.
    Since the late 20th century, the Ponca Tribe has worked to build its infrastructure and improve services for its people. In February 2006, the tribe received a grant of more than $800,000 from the Shakopee Mdewakanton Sioux Community of Minnesota for debt retirement and economic development.[citation needed]
    Nearby north-central tribes are the Kaw, Osage, Otoe-Missouria, Pawnee and Tonkawa. These are all federally recognized tribes, as is the Ponca Tribe of Indians of Oklahoma. In 1994 the six tribes established the Standing Bear Foundation and Pow-wow, beginning the first of annual shared pow-wows, to which they invite the public. They wanted to build collaboration among the tribes and with the non-Native residents of Ponca City. The pow-wow is now held in Standing Bear Park, which was named in honor of the notable Ponca chief.

    Pioneer Woman statue and museum

    The Pioneer Woman statue was modeled by sculptor Bryant Baker and was unveiled in a public ceremony on April 22, 1930, when forty thousand guests came to hear Will Rogers pay tribute to Oklahoma's pioneers. The statue is 27 feet (8.2 m) high and weighs 12,000 pounds.
    Ponca City is the site of the Pioneer Woman Museum and the Pioneer Woman statue. The statue was erected to commemorate women pioneers. In the early 1920s, E. W. Marland decided to create a statue commemorating the Pioneer Woman.[19] Marland was reportedly asked, "E. W., why don't you have ... a statue to the vanishing American, a Ponca, Otoe, or an Osage - a monument of great size?" Marland answered, "the Indian is not the vanishing American - it's the pioneer woman."[19] He sponsored a competition for the winning statue.
    In 1927, miniature 3 feet (0.9 m) sculptures were submitted as part of a competition by 12 U.S. and international sculptors: John Gregory, Maurice Sterne, Hermon Atkins MacNeil, James Earle Fraser, Alexander Stirling Calder, Wheeler Williams, Mario Korbel, F. Lynn Jenkins, Mahonri Young, Arthur Lee, Jo Davidson and Bryant Baker). They were displayed in twelve cities around the state, where they were viewed by 750,000 people who voted for their favorite.[citation needed] The twelve original submissions have been on display at the museum at Woolaroc near Bartlesville, Oklahoma since the 1930s. Marland sold them to Frank Phillips after losing control of the Marland Oil Company.[citation needed]
    The British-born American sculptor Bryant Baker was chosen as the winner. His full-scale work was unveiled in a public ceremony on April 22, 1930. Forty thousand guests came to hear Will Rogers pay tribute to Oklahoma's pioneers. The statue is 27 feet (8.2 m) high and weighs 12,000 pounds.[citation needed]
    A related museum commemorating Oklahoma women was opened on September 16, 1958, on the 65th anniversary of the Cherokee Strip land run.[20] It recognizes the work of Native American as well as European-American women, and their leadership and stamina in creating homes, raising children and taking care of the work of sustaining life and communities.

    Landmarks

    Ponca City is home to several landmarks on the National Register of Historic Places including the Poncan Theatre, the Marland Mansion and Marland's Grand Home. Ponca City also holds several regional events each year.

    Economy

    Phillips 66 has 1,500 employees and 650 contractors in its facilities in Ponca City. The company has a credit card center, a refining complex, a technology research center and a transportation office. The Ponca City Refinery, operated by Phillips66, is the largest refinery in the state of Oklahoma.[21]
    E. W. Marland built the Ponca City refinery in 1918 and founded the Marland Oil Company. In 1929, the Continental Oil Company merged with Marland, and the two became Conoco Inc. The Conoco headquarters were in Ponca City until 1949, when it moved to Houston, Texas. In 2002 Conoco Inc. and Phillips Petroleum Company, whose headquarters were in nearby Bartlesville, Oklahoma merged into ConocoPhillips.[21]

    Sister cities

    Airport

    Ponca City Regional Airport (airport code PNC) (1007 feet above mean sea level) is located at the northwest corner of the city at 36 degrees 43.84 north latitude and 97 degrees 05.99 west longitude. The facility has a 7,201 foot 17-35 runway which is 150 feet (46 m) wide, and the un-towered facility has a full-length taxiway. The local airport booster club hosts a fly-in breakfast every first Saturday of the month, year around, "rain or shine".

    Electricity

    The Ponca City region receives electricity powered hydro-electrically at Kaw Lake, a United States Army Corps of Engineers project. The facility, located seven miles (11 km) east of Ponca City, dams the Arkansas River. The electric utility is managed by the Oklahoma Municipal Power Authority (OMPA) of Edmond, Oklahoma.

    Education

    Ponca City Schools Logo

    Public education

    Ponca City Public Schools serves the general population's education requirements. Ponca City Public Schools serves over 5100 students.
    High schools
    • Ponca City High School - Ponca City High School (Po-Hi) serves all 9th through 12th grade students in the school district.
    • Ombudsman Alternative Education Center - had provided select students the option to take a mostly technology-based route through high school. Ombudsman Alternative Education Center was closed after the end year of 2012-2013.  :* WildCat Academy Program - starting in the year of (2013-2014) became the new alternative school for high school students in the area. Sponsoring the Ponca City WildCat logo, with new changes from the Ombudsman and past alternative schools.
    Middle schools
    • East Middle School - East Middle School serves Ponca City's approximately 380 8th grade students in the Ponca City Public School system.
    • West Middle School - West Middle School serves all of the district's 6th and 7th grade students
    Elementary schools
    Ponca City has currently seven elementary schools to serve the district's Pre-K through 5th grade students:
    • Garfield Elementary
    • Liberty Elementary
    • Lincoln Elementary
    • Roosevelt Elementary
    • Trout Elementary
    • Union Elementary
    • Washington Elementary (became the Alternative School, but was closed at the end of the 2009-2010 school year.)
    • Woodlands Elementary

    Private education

    Ponca City has three private schools that serve students from pre-K through 8th grade:
    • Ponca City Christian Academy
    • First Lutheran School
    • St. Mary's Catholic School

    Higher education

    Research facilities

    Points of interest

    In popular culture

    The Town of Ponca City was one of the filming locations for 1996 movie Twister.[23]
    In the cartoon series The Rocky and Bullwinkle Show, Bullwinkle is said to have relatives in Ponca City.[24]
    In an episode of The Rockford Files, James Garner, a native Oklahoman, mentions Ponca City.
    A film about E. W. Marland is in production to shoot in Ponca City, Titled "The Ends of the Earth". The film will star Academy Award winner Jennifer Lawrence. Production is expected to start in 2014.

    Gallery

    Notable people

    Bill Pickett's image on a handbill advertising the movie "The Bull-Dogger," released in 1921 by The Norman Film Manufacturing Company. Pickett was billed as "the world's colored champion" in "death-defying feats of courage and skill."

    Thursday, July 16, 2015

    Fa Mulan or Hua Mulan by Walt Disney movie

    Tomboy Mulan secretely takes her father's place in the army of China to defeat the huns, lead by Shan Yu.

    Plot

    When the Huns, led by the ruthless Shan Yu, invade China, each family is given a conscription notice. Mulan's father, Fa Zhou has to serve in the army, but due to his age and previous war injuries, it is doubtful that he would survive. Fa Mulan disguises herself as a man, then takes her father's conscription notice, armor, and weapons so that he will not have to go. She rides away on her horse, Khan, to join the army, knowing that if she were caught she would be killed.
    Mushu, a small chinese dragon, has been awakened by the family's First Ancestor. Mushu had been demoted to gong ringer after a mishap with one of the ancestors when the other ancestors were awakened. After various choices of which guardian to send after Mulan, he is asked to awaken the "Great Stone Dragon". Mushu accidentally destroys the Dragon but realizes that this could be an opportunity to earn his place among the guardians again if he can make Mulan a war hero.
    Mulan trains with a group led by Captain Li Shang, including fellow soldiers Ling, Yao, and Chien Po. The troops complete their training, but Chi Fu, the Emperor's meddling and misogynistic advisor, refuses to let them see battle, accusing the troops of being ill prepared. Mushu forges a letter from the General, ordering Shang to take his men to battle. The troops set out to meet General Li, who has already left on a mission. However, Shang and his troops discover that the General and his men were killed in battle.
    Shang and his troops continue, disheartened by their loss, when they are ambushed by Hun archers. After an initial attack, the Huns are believed to be defeated, but the troops soon discover otherwise. As they are setting up the last cannon to fire at the Huns, Mulan spots a precarious mound of snow on the upper mountainside. As the Huns charge down the mountain Mulan takes the cannon and fires the rocket at the snow mound. The collision of the rocket and the snow mound causes an avalanche which spreads over the charging Huns, burying them. Shang's soldiers take refuge while Mulan rescues Shang from being swept away by the snow. The Chinese soldiers initially cheer for their victory, but quickly become somber after Mulan discovers that she is bleeding; she had been wounded by a swipe of Shan Yu's sword. Shang quickly summons a doctor just as Mulan faints.
    During treatment, Mulan's true identity is discovered. Shang is notified and is expected to execute Mulan, but spares her life and considers his pardon an exchange for Mulan saving his own life. Instead, Shang expels her from the army. Mulan decides to return home, but hears the Huns emerging from the snow that had blanketed them during the earlier battle. She tries to warn Shang's troops as they are heralded by citizens in a parade for their war efforts, but they do not listen. As the Emperor addresses the crowd, the Huns, disguised as parade characters, kidnap him.
    Shang and his troops try to follow the Huns into the palace but are unsuccessful. Mulan devises a ploy with the other soldiers to dress as concubines, scale a palace wall and infiltrate the palace. When the Huns lower their defenses in the presence of the "women", Mulan and her friends swiftly dispatch them all. During this attack, the Emperor is safely removed from the palace by Chien Po, but Shang and Mulan are both trapped on the balcony with Shan Yu. Shan Yu is about kill Shang when Mulan gets his attention. He recognizes her from the mountain battle and gives chase. Mulan lures him onto the palace rooftop where they face each other in personal combat, until Mushu, as arranged by Mulan, propels a huge firecracker that hits Shan Yu and carries him off to his death. The fate of the remaining five Hun warriors is never fully disclosed.
    The Emperor meets Mulan and, in an accusatory tone, lists Mulan's crimes, but he pardons her. The Emperor then bows to Mulan, which is considered an extremely high honor as it implies being of a higher status than the Emperor, while the hundreds of observers kow-tow (an Eastern bowing position with one's face and palms to the floor). The Emperor then offers Mulan a position in his staff, but Mulan politely refuses the offer and confesses that she wants to return home. He gives her Shan Yu's sword, along with his crest, for her to bring home and give honor to her family.
    Upon her return, Mulan expects to be reprimanded but is instead embraced by her family. Shang arrives to talk with Mulan, having been encouraged to propose by the Emperor. The ancestors reluctantly agree to make Mushu a guardian once more.

    Cast

    Songs

    • Honor to Us All
    • Reflection
    • I'll Make a Man Out of You
    • A Girl Worth Fighting For
    • True to Your Heart

    Wednesday, July 1, 2015

    University of Nebraska–Lincoln

     

    From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
    University of Nebraska–Lincoln
    Seal of the University of Nebraska
    University of Nebraska-Lincoln seal
    Latin: Universitas Nebraskensis
    Motto Literis Dedicata et Omnibus Artibus (Latin)
    Motto in English
    Dedicated to Letters and All the Arts
    Established 1869
    Type Flagship
    Public
    Land grant
    Endowment US$1.24 billion (2011) [1]
    Chancellor Harvey Perlman
    President James Linder (interim)
    Academic staff
    1,597
    Students 24,593[2]
    Undergraduates 19,345[2]
    Postgraduates 4,679[2]
    Location Lincoln, Nebraska, United States
    40°49′03″N 96°42′05″WCoordinates: 40°49′03″N 96°42′05″W
    Campus Suburban, 613 acres (248 ha)
    42,562 acres (17,224 ha) total throughout state
    Colors Scarlet and Cream[3]
             
    Athletics NCAA Division I FBS
    Big Ten
    Sports 21 varsity teams
    Nickname Cornhuskers
    Mascot Herbie Husker
    Lil' Red
    Affiliations University of Nebraska system
    URA
    APLU
    CIC
    Website www.unl.edu
    University of Nebraska-Lincoln logo
    The University of Nebraska–Lincoln (commonly referred to as Nebraska, UNL or NU) is a public research university located in Lincoln, Nebraska, United States.[4] It is the state's oldest and largest university and the flagship university of the University of Nebraska system.
    The university was chartered by the legislature in 1869 as a land-grant university under the 1862 Morrill Act, two years after Nebraska's statehood into the United States. Around the turn of the 20th century, the university began to expand significantly, hiring professors from eastern schools to teach in the newly organized professional colleges while also producing groundbreaking research in agricultural sciences. The "Nebraska method" of ecological study developed here during this time, which pioneered grassland ecology and laid the foundation for research in theoretical ecology for the rest of the 20th century.[5][6] The university is organized into eight colleges, located on two campuses in Lincoln with over 100 classroom buildings and research facilities.[7]
    Its athletic program, called the Cornhuskers, is a member of the Big Ten Conference. The Nebraska football team has won a total of 46 conference championships, and since 1970, five national championships. The women's volleyball team has won three national championships along with eight other appearances in the Final Four.[8] The Husker football team plays its home games at Memorial Stadium, selling out every game since 1962. The stadium's current capacity is about 92,000 people, larger than the population of Nebraska's third-largest city.[9][10]

    History

    Origin

    The University of Nebraska was created by an act of the Nebraska state legislature in 1869, two years after Nebraska reached statehood. The school was given a mission to "afford to the inhabitants of the state the means of acquiring a thorough knowledge of the various branches of literature, science, and the arts." The school received an initial land grant of about 130,000 acres (53,000 ha) and the campus construction began with the building of University Hall in its first year. By 1873, the University of Nebraska had offered its first two degrees to its first graduating class.[11] The school remained small and suffered from a lack of funds until about 20 years after its founding, when its high school programs were taken over by a new state education system. From 1890 to 1895 enrollment rose from 384 to about 1,500. A law school and a graduate school were also created at about this time period, making it the first school west of the Mississippi to establish a graduate school.[12] By 1897, the school was 15th in the nation in total enrollment.[13]
    Through the turn of the 20th century, the school struggled to find an identity as both a pragmatic, frontier establishment and an academic, intellectual institution.[14] It also developed a competitive spirit in the form of a debate team, a football team (first called the Cornhuskers in 1901), and the arrival of fraternities and sororities.[15] In 1913–14, a fierce debate ensued over whether to keep the University in downtown Lincoln or to move it out of town. The issue was not resolved until a statewide referendum sided with the downtown plan. After purchasing property downtown, the school experienced a building boom, both on the new property and on the farming campus. The school would not experience another boom until the late 1940s, when the sudden arrival of thousands of soldiers returning from the war for an education forced the school to seek further expansion.[16]

    Administration and organization

    Organizations

    Governing bodies

    University of Nebraska is governed by the Board of Regents. The board consists of eight voting members elected by district for six-year terms, and four non-voting student Regents, one from each campus, who serve during their tenure as student body president. The board supervises the general operations of the university, and the control and direction of all expenditures.

    Faculties and schools

    The university today has nine faculties which offers more than 150 undergraduate majors, 20 pre-professional programs, 100 graduate programs and 275 programs of study.[17]
    UNL also offers programs at its campus from other University of Nebraska institutions, including the University of Nebraska at Omaha College of Public Affairs and Community Service, the University of Nebraska Medical Center colleges of Dentistry and Nursing, and the Peter Kiewit Institute managed in partnership with the University of Nebraska at Omaha.[17]

    Campus

    Hamilton Hall
    In 1869, the original University of Nebraska campus was laid out on four city blocks and comprised one building called University Hall. Currently, the university has two campuses, totaling 2,815 acres (1,139 ha): City Campus, which is just north of downtown Lincoln, and south of the old Nebraska State Fair grounds and East Campus which is approximately two miles east-northeast of City Campus. Both of the campuses have an institute area and a residential area. The institute area consists of the departments, headquarters, governing body, research institutes, well-equipped laboratories, theaters, auditoriums, recreation centers, fraternity and sorority housing, power plants, facilities and managements. Institute area occupies 613 acres (248 ha) combining both the campuses. However the larger part is the residential district, which consist of student housing, residential apartments, and on campus living for faculties in apartments or individual cottages. Water supply management located in the residential district, supplies water throughout the campus. Remote sensing located in East campus,rail management factory in city campus, and some other remote research centers on telecommunications and wireless technology are also located in residential districts of the campus. Parks and recreation places inside the UNL city campus and East campus is a part of the residential area of the university. Beside the two main campuses, UNL also operates the UNL technology park on the north side of Lincoln. The park covers an area of 25 acres (10 ha). It is supplied by some laboratories on artificial intelligence. The Technology Park was launched in 1997 as a joint effort of the University of Nebraska, private sector investors and the University of Nebraska Foundation.

    Major campus expansion

    In January 2010, the university acquired a 249-acre (101 ha) property north of city campus that formerly was used to host the Nebraska State Fair.[18] Plans for redevelopment include an US$800 million expansion called the Nebraska Innovation Campus, which is designated to house agricultural biotechnology and other life science research.[19][20]

    Unions

    Nebraska Union
    Nebraska Union is the student union located on the southern part of City Campus. Many services are offered to the students including dining, computer labs, and other recreational activities, while the lower level of the union houses the University Bookstore. The Nebraska Union also provides space for student organizations, and events and speakers, as well as holding offices for the Daily Nebraskan and the student government. The Union is home to the Greek Affairs office and the Women's Center. The Rotunda Gallery showcases various student artwork. In spring 2006, the student body voted to finance an expansion to the Nebraska Union including adding new space for the university Culture Center (formerly in a different building).[21]
    Nebraska East Union is located on East Campus and offers similar student services as the Nebraska Union. The Loft Gallery provides space for community and student artwork.

    Performing arts venues

    Other points of interest

    • Architecture Hall, formerly the university's library and now home of its architecture program, is the oldest building on campus. This historic structure is linked to the old law building via a glass connecting space, known as "The Link."
    • Since 1928, UNL has been the home of the headquarters of the National Society of Pershing Rifles, a military fraternal organization for college-level students. John J. Pershing, an 1893 NU law school graduate and professor of Military Science and Tactics, created "Company A," a competitive drill team, for the University of Nebraska's Cadet Corps in 1891. The drill team won the National Competitive Drills in 1892, changed its name to the "Varsity Rifles" when it became a recognized fraternal organization in 1894, and changed its name again to the "Pershing Rifles" in 1895 in honor of Pershing.
    • There are several research centers on Physics like the Brace Laboratory, Center of Materials and Nanoscience, High equipped laboratories are provided in Hamilton Hall which is the department as well and Chemistry institute. Othmer Hall houses the College of Engineering Dean's Office, the Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, and the Biological Process Development Facility (BPDF). Research in Othmer Hall's Mesoscale Engineering Laboratory has received attention in Science. Some highly equipped laboratories such as the Genetic research and Biotechnology laboratory are located on East Campus.
    • University is renowned also in Robotics. It has a high equipped robotics laboratory.
    • East Campus also has a wireless telecommunication system on remote sensing of Satellites.

    Academics

    University rankings
    National
    ARWU[23] 78-104
    Forbes[24] 280
    U.S. News & World Report[25] 99
    Washington Monthly[26] 165[22]
    Global
    ARWU[27] 201-300
    QS[28] 551
    Times[29] 276-300

    Admissions and demographics

    The University of Nebraska–Lincoln admitted about 67% of all applicants in 2008, and 68% of those admitted went on to enroll at the school. In 2007, the U.S. News and World Report rated it as a "more selective" university.[30] On a 25th percentile/75th percentile measurement, students scored 500/650 on the SAT critical reading section and 530/670 on the math section. ACT composite scores were 22/28.[31] Eighty-five percent of undergraduates are white, with a little over 53% being male, and 47% being female.[32] About 18% of undergraduate students are from outside the state of Nebraska (excluding internationals). The ratio of students to faculty in 2008 was 20 to 1.[33] The school is in the first tier and ranked 99th in the U.S. News and World Report's national rankings.[34] The university has been recorded as an A grade university throughout the world by University Ranking by Academic Performance(URAP)and acquires a rank of 317 by URAP and 152–200 by Academic Ranking of World Universities(ARWU) world rankings.[35][36]

    Research

    University of Nebraska–Lincoln scientists have been some of the most-cited in the world in the last 10 years in the area of agricultural research, according to the IS1 Essential Science Indicators Report. Scientists in the UNL Institute of Agriculture and Natural Resources (IANR) alone published 1,028 papers, which were cited 6,056 times from January 1994 through January 2004.[37]

    University libraries and museums

    The Don L. Love Memorial Library is the main library in the University of Nebraska-Lincoln library system.
    The University Libraries are the only set of comprehensive research libraries in Nebraska. 3.5 million volumes reside in UNL's two main libraries. The Don L. Love Memorial Library is the main library on campus and houses collections on social sciences and humanities.[38] Other academic disciplines are housed in six branch locations on campus:
    • Architecture Library
    • C.Y. Thompson Library
    • Engineering Library
    • Geology Library
    • Mathematics Library
    • Music Library
    The Marvin and Virginia Schmid Law Library serves the UNL College of Law.
    The University of Nebraska State Museum is located on campus in Morrill Hall. The museum holds several collections and exhibits particularly featuring natural history and famously houses Mammoth bone fossils. Because of these fossils, and a large bronze Columbian Mammoth statue located in front of the building, it is popularly known as "Elephant Hall."
    The Sheldon Memorial Art Gallery and Sculpture Garden is home to more than 12,000 works of art in all media and is a comprehensive collection of American art with prominent holdings in 19th century landscape and still life, American Impressionism, early Modernism, geometric abstraction, Abstract Expressionism, pop, minimalism, and contemporary art. The museum has the largest collection of 20th Century North American art in the world; it includes works by such well known artists as Edward Hopper, Andy Warhol, Jackson Pollock, Mary Cassatt, Wayne Thiebaud and Georgia O'Keeffe.
    The Great Plains Art Museum is home to the Christlieb Collection, and features American western art and Americana.[39]
    The Lester F. Larsen Tractor Museum is located on the university's East Campus. It houses 40 historical tractors, an antique auto and various types of farm tools. In addition it documents Nebraska's tractor testing law examinations that to this day requires testing of all tractors to be sold in Nebraska, ensuring performance is as advertised.

    Focus areas

    The University's English Department has one of the world's top programs in the digital humanities, with renowned digital archiving projects such as the Walt Whitman Archive and the Willa Cather Archive. Projects are also underway for the production of a free online Native American Omaha-Ponca language dictionary.[40] In the area of creative writing, the department has as a member of its faculty former United States Poet Laureate, Ted Kooser.[41] The school's University of Nebraska Press is the second-largest public university press in the United States, and is among the largest publishers of scholarly titles in the world.[42]

    AAU membership and removal

    In 1908, Nebraska was inducted as the 18th member of the Association of American Universities, the organization of the nation's top research universities.[43] In recent years, Nebraska had been at or near the bottom of the AAU's statistical criteria for members, a ranking attributed in part to the university's extensive agricultural research funded by the U.S. Department of Agriculture, which is not included in the AAU's rankings because it is not awarded by peer-reviewed grants; and because Nebraska's medical school is a separate institution whose research funding is not under UNL's auspices.
    Nebraska successfully retained its AAU membership after a 2000 challenge. This provided Nebraska with an advantage when the Big Ten was looking to expand in 2010, as all of its members at that time were AAU members. Nebraska Chancellor Harvey Perlman said. "I doubt that our application would've been accepted had we not been a member of the [AAU]."[44] However, in 2011, after an extended campaign to retain its membership and a close, contentious vote, Nebraska became the only institution to be removed from the AAU membership by a vote of the membership (a few other institutions had voluntarily resigned.)[45][46][47][48]

    Big Ten Committee on Institutional Cooperation

    The University of Nebraska is a participant in the Committee on Institutional Cooperation. The Committee on Institutional Cooperation (CIC) is the academic consortium of the universities in the Big Ten Conference plus former conference member, the University of Chicago. The initiative also allows students at participating institutions to take distance courses at other participating institutions. The initiative also forms a partnership of research. Engaging in $8 billion in research in 2010, CIC universities are providing powerful insight into important issues in medicine, technology, agriculture, and communities.[49] Students at participating schools are also allowed "in-house" viewing privileges at other participating schools' libraries.[50] They also employ collective purchasing, which has saved member institutions $19 million to date.[51]

    Sustainability

    The University of Nebraska has adopted LEED certification for all new construction projects. UNL's Sustainable Food Project, started in 2005, is designed to serve meals on campus that feature locally and sustainably produced foods. The university's motor pool includes vehicles fueled by soy biodiesel as well as gasohol (85% ethanol, 15% gasoline blend). The University of Nebraska received a grade of C on the College Sustainability Report Card 2011.[52] As of 2009, the University's cafeterias no longer provide trays to the students, a program implemented to reduce organic waste and save money.
    The University of Nebraska is one of the few universities of its size to not have a separate Office of Sustainability.

    Athletics

    Main article: Nebraska Cornhuskers
    Nebraska Cornhuskers logo.svg
    A football game at Memorial Stadium
    Nebraska's sports teams are nicknamed as the Cornhuskers (or simply the Huskers). They participate in Division I (Division I FBS for football) in the NCAA as members of the Big Ten Conference. The Huskers have 21 varsity teams that compete in 14 different sports and claim all or part of 23 National Championships across five sports, including volleyball, football, and gymnastics. In football, the Huskers have had three Heisman Trophy winners: Johnny Rodgers, Mike Rozier, and Eric Crouch, along with five national championship victories in 1970, 1971, 1994, 1995, and 1997.[53]

    Song

    Notable among a number of songs commonly played and sung at various events such as commencement and convocation, and athletic games are Dear Old Nebraska U. and the University of Nebraska–Lincoln fight song, Hail Varsity. In Nebraska, the lyrics and music to Dear Old Nebraska U. are attributed to Harry Pecha, a 1924 Nebraska graduate.[54] However, other schools and locales across the United States – including the University of Chicago, the University of Florida, and the Toledo, Ohio public school system – sing similar tunes, often with similar lyrics.[55]

    Student life

    About 78 percent of UNL students are from Nebraska, while the rest are from all forty-nine other states and 114 foreign countries. On-campus students are also members of the UNL Residence Hall Association, which serves as the governing body for the residence halls. Select honorary seniors include the Nebraska-only Society of Innocents and the Black Masque chapter of Mortar Board.

    Residence Halls

    The Esther L. Kauffman Academic Residential Center.
    Approximately 40% of the student body lives on-campus in 15 traditional residence halls, two on-campus apartment-style halls, and three on-campus suite-style halls.
    There are 12 traditional residence halls on the City Campus:
    • Abel
    • Cather
    • Harper
    • Husker Hall
    • Kauffman Center
    • Knoll
    • Pound
    • Neihardt
    • Sandoz
    • Schramm
    • Selleck
    • Smith
    Three traditional residence halls are on the East Campus: Burr, Fedde, and Love Memorial Co-op. Two on-campus apartment-style halls are located on the City Campus: The Courtyards, and The Village. Three on-campus suite-style halls are located on the City Campus: Eastside Suites, Robert E. Knoll Residential Center, and University Suites.

    Student government

    The governing body for UNL students is the Association of Students of the University of Nebraska (ASUN). Every year students vote for a president, two vice presidents, and a senate that is composed of representatives from each college. The president also acts as the student regent to the NU Board of Regents.

    Student organizations

    UNL has around 400 student organizations on campus that represent a variety of interests.[56] Organizations are supported by Student Involvement.

    Greek Organizations

    UNL has a significant Greek population, with about 5,200 students being members of 30 fraternities (28 chapters and two colonies) and 16 sororities. There are numerous events on campus throughout the year such as decorating "Greek Row" for the homecoming parade and various philanthropy events.